youth subcultures

Most part of this post is taken from wikipedia articles.

(1)the Pop. First we start by saying something about the conformism. The fifties-sixties(of the twentieth century, of course) are usually called the conformism. It is a mixture of two contradictory things: the first is originated from the time before the world war, when people tend to be rigid, reactionary, and out-dated(always around work, family and hometown); the second is after the world war, when the Europe starts to mimic or cope the American model, during which people tend to be artificiel and inhumain, like a machine automatic, technocracy. The pop defines the tendance of anti-conformism. It takes place during the seventies(from about 1965 to 1975). Here the pop itself have two variations, opposite one from the other: the minet-pop and the hippies.

(2)The hippie. The first signs of hippie emerged in German, around 1896 to 1908 when a youth movement arose as a countercultural reaction to the organized social and cultural clubs that centered around German folk music. This movement is known as ‘der wandervogel’. During the early twentieth century, the Germans settled in united states, and brought with them the values of this movement. Gradually this led to the youth movement in United States. By 1965, the hippie became an established social group in USA, and eventually spread to other countries, like Europe, Australia, Japan, etc.

The common value of the hippie: rejet the established institutions, criticize middle class values, oppose nuclear weapons, oppose Vietnam wars, champion sexual liberation, vegetarians, eco-friendly, use psychedelic drugs, oppose political and social orthodoxy, choose a gentle and non-doctrinaire ideology to express peace, love and personal freedom(For example, in the song ‘all you need is love‘ of Beatles).

The early hippies(1960-1966):Merry Prankster and others, promote drugs. There is a song ‘that is for the other one‘, written by the Grateful Dead, about the trips of Merry Prankster. During this period, New York, Berkeley, California anchored the American folk music,

Then we will say something related to politics.(Ronald Creagh) it is an utopian socialism, desire for the transformation of society not through political revolution, or through reformist action pushed forward by the state, but through the creation of a counter-society of a socialistcharacter in the midst of the current system, which will be made up of ideal communities of a more or less libertarian social form. The hippies are often pacifists, participate in non-violent political demonstrations, such as civil rights marches, anti-Vietnam war demonstrations(organize political action group to oppose the war, refuse to serve in the military and conduct ‘teach-ins’ on college campuses covering the Vietnamese history and the large political context of the war). Of course, the degree of political involvement varies from person to person among the hippies. Amon the the most active are the Yippies, a subgroup of the hippies.

Some music works help in this movement. For example, the song ‘San Francisco(be sure to wear flowers in your hair)’ by Scott McKenwie in 1967, is a homecoming song for all Vietnam veterans arriving in SF from 1967. What is more, McKenwie dedicates every American performance of ‘SF’ to Vietnam veterans, and he sings in 2002 at the 20th anniversary of the dedication of the Vietnam veterans memorial.

Hippie political expression often takes the form of ‘dropping out’ of society to implement the changes they sought.

There are other movements in which the hippies involve, like organic farming.

These movements are carried through anti-authoritarian and non-violent means. ‘The way of the hippie is antithetical to all repressive hierarchical power structures since they are adverse to the hippie goals of peace, love and freedom. Hippie do not impose their beliefs on others. Instead, hippies seek to change the world through reason and by living what they believe’.

The political ideals of the hippie are influential, like anarcho-punk, New-Age movement and others.

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